Friday, 22 January 2016

Computer Networking Fundamentals


Hi Dear All…
Greetings….

You can find here articles which offer some basic idea of computer networking. If you’re a beginner, you can feel pretty good with the networking fundamentals explained here, or if you have already completed your diploma/degree, don’t worry! You can still refresh your ideas on networking.

 

Computer Networking Fundamentals

There are two types of computers: a single/standalone PC or a networked PC. A single PC can use its own resources (like files, printers, internet connection) only, but a networked PC can access the files from other PCs, or printers connected to other computers. So, a computer network is considered to be a set of computers connected together in order to share the resources. Today, Internet has become very common like a basic need of life. Internet itself is large computer network, because so many computers in the world are connected together to share the information.

What is a Computer Network?

A set of connected computers is called a computer network. The PCs on a network are called nodes. The computers can be connected through cabling - the Ethernet cable is the most common -or via wireless connection through radio waves. The advantage of a computer network is that the PCs can share the files and folders, printers, access to the Internet etc. that means a networked computer is more powerful, because it can do more things than a single computer. Imagine what can a society do compared to a single individual.

Types of Network Connection

There are several type of network connections, depending on the technique of connecting computers; it’s called network topologies. Some of the common topologies are listed below:

Collapsed Ring Topology

The most commonly used topology today is called collapsed ring. The Ethernet protocol (a network language) which supports the Internet, Local Area Networks (LAN), and Wide Area Networks (WAN) uses this topology.

In this topology, there will be a central node called a hub, router, or a switch. This device has a ring topology internally and there will be plugins for cables. Likewise, each PC may have a separate cable, which can plug into the device.



Star Topology

In a star topology, there will be a central node which extends a cable to each PC on the network. The computers are connected independently to the central node on a star network, The advantage of this type of network is, even if a cable is broken, the other PCs can still work. The negative side is, a star topology needs a lot of cabling.


Bus Topology

There will only be a single cable to connect all computers in a bus topology. The good advantage of this topology is, required minimum level of cabling, but if a cable is broken, all the PCs down the line cannot access the network.


Some Terms and Definitions:

Local Area Network (LAN): 

This network is ideal for a small number of people in a small geographical area. Peer-to-peer or client server networking methods can be applied.


Wide Area Network (WAN): 

This network can connect a computer with its peripheral resources across a wide geographical area.


Wireless Area Network (WAN): 

In this network, there is no need any wires or physical media to connect computers (hosts) with the server. The data is transferred through radio transceivers.

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